low fodmap diet on a phone

Understanding the low FODMAP Diet

CDHF

Written by: CDHF

Updated: January 25th, 2024

What are FODMAPs?

FODMAPs are a group of small carbohydrate (sugar) molecules found in everyday foods. Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and provide an important source of energy for the body. FODMAPs are carbohydrates that may be poorly absorbed in the small intestine of some people. FODMAPs move through the digestive tract to the large intestine (colon), where they can draw water into the colon and are rapidly fermented (digested) by naturally-occurring gut bacteria. The fermentation of FODMAPs produces gas and other by-products.

It is estimated that up to 80% of people with IBS may benefit from a low FODMAPs diet, however the quality of scientific evidence is very low. Of these people, there is a possible benefit for overall symptoms such as abdominal pain, cramping, bloating, excess gas, constipation, and/or diarrhea. 1,2,3

What does FODMAP mean?

FODMAP is an acronym for Fermentable – Oligosaccharides – Disaccharides – Monosaccharides – And – Polyols. Each of these is explained below:

F- Fermentable

O- Oligosaccharides

D- Disaccharides

M- Monosaccharides

A- And

P- Polyols

How do FODMAPs affect people with digestive disorders?

Although FODMAPs are not the cause of digestive disorders such as IBS, they can trigger gastrointestinal symptoms. When FODMAPs reach the colon, they draw fluid into the bowel and bacteria ferment the FODMAP molecules to produce hydrogen and methane gases. The liquid and gas distend (stretch) the intestine and signal nerves surrounding the digestive organs.

For many people with IBS, the nerves of the gut are unusually sensitive and even a small change in the intestinal volume can cause the nerve network to overreact and trigger IBS symptoms.

What foods contain FODMAPs?

FODMAPs are found in a wide variety of everyday foods including fruits, vegetables, legumes, milk products and sweetening agents. Each person has an individual threshold for tolerating FODMAPs and some foods may pose more of a problem than others. A diet that reduces the intake of high FODMAP foods (shown in Table 1) and manages the total FODMAP load at each meal, may help to improve gastrointestinal symptoms for some people.

Download the understanding FODMAPs PDF

Table 1: High FODMAPs Foods

High FODMAP foods can be replaced with choices from the low FODMAP foods list (as seen in table 2) to help maintain a nutritious and well-balanced diet.

FRUCTANS

Vegetables

Grains

Nuts

GALACTO-OLIGOSACCHARIDES

Legumes

LACTOSE

Milk Products

Cheese

EXCESS FRUCTOSE

Fruits

Sweeteners

Alcohol

POLYOLS

Fruits

Vegetables

Sweeteners

Table 2: Low FODMAP foods

Examine ingredients on gluten-free breads and cereals to ensure other FODMAPs such as honey and agave are not present

FRUCTANS

Vegetables

Grains

GALACTO-OLIGOSACCHARIDES

Legumes

LACTOSE

Milk Products

Cheese

EXCESS FRUCTOSE

Fruits

Sweeteners

POLYOLS

Fruits

Sweeteners

Who should follow a low FODMAP diet?

If you experience any of the symptoms commonly associated with IBS, consult your physician. In addition to other treatments, your doctor may recommend, following a low FODMAP diet may be an effective strategy to ease the pain, gas, and altered bowel patterns commonly experienced in IBS.

When reducing FODMAPs in the diet, it is important to replace restricted foods with nutritious alternatives and ensure that your diet is healthy and well-balanced. A re-introduction of FODMAP foods should be done gradually to help identify which FODMAPs can be tolerated over the long term.

The low FODMAP Diet is best implemented under the supervision of a qualified health care professional, such as a registered dietitian. This diet is a new and evolving area of nutritional science. Additional research into the role of FODMAPs in IBS and the FODMAP content of specific foods is continually emerging. We encourage you to seek additional sources that are supported by recent scientific evidence.

Is the FODMAP diet permanent?

No. You should be working collaboratively with your healthcare professional to eliminate high FODMAP foods and reintroduce them slowly over a six month period to eliminate which foods are negatively affecting you.

When you report your health status completely, concisely and accurately, your physician can provide you with the best care and treatment plan. Be sure to stay informed on ways to maintain your health and well-being, track and record your symptoms, and write down questions and concerns to discuss at your next appointment.

This guide is meant to explain the basics only, and CDHF encourages any IBS patients who are thinking about attempting this elimination diet for themselves to do so under the guidance of a registered dietitian.


References:

  1. Shepherd SJ et al, Dietary triggers of abdominal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: randomized placebo-controlled evidence. Clin Gastroenterol and Hepatol. 2008;6(7):765-71.
  2. de Roaest RH et al. The low FODMAP diet improves gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective study. Int J Clin Pract. 2013; 67(9):895-903.
  3. Eswaran SL et al. A randomized controlled trial comparing the low FODMAP diet vs. modified NICE Guidelines in US adults with IBS-D. Am J Gastroenterol. 2016;111(12):1824-1832.

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