Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is at least two, separate disorders that cause inflammation (redness and swelling) and ulceration (sores) of the small and large intestines. These two disorders are called ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.
Crohn's disease can occur anywhere in the digestive tract but is common in the lower small bowel (ileum) or large bowel.
Malnutrition and blood disorders are common conditions in Crohn's Disease patients found to be caused by avoiding food items either because of existing symptoms or concern that they may bring on symptoms. Almost half of Crohn's Disease patients have additional health issues affecting their joints, skin, eyes, and biliary tract that may be more debilitating than the bowel symptoms.
Canada has one of the highest incidence and prevalence rates of IBD in the world with more than 200,000 Canadians living with the disease. These disorders are expensive and can be debilitating. The total direct and indirect costs of IBD are $1.8 billion with the main indirect cost being related to long-term work loss. The average age for people developing IBD often coincides with the most important socioeconomic period of life. The severity of symptoms may prevent those with IBD from realizing their career potential or family creation.
1. What is a Biologic?
Biologic (reference) drugs are medications made by using living organisms (such as yeast or animal cells) to produce complex proteins that are purified then administered to affect certain processes in the human body.
2. What is a Biosimilar?
A biosimilar is a drug demonstrated to be highly similar to a biologic (reference) drug, that has been authorized for sale in Canada.
3. What do experts say about the safety and efficacy of biosimilars?
Health Canada is responsible for ensuring the safety, efficacy, and quality of all new drugs including biologics and biosimilars. For a biosimilar drug to be approved in Canada, Health Canada must find no meaningful differences in safety and effectiveness compared to the biologic. The biosimilars involved in BC PharmaCare’s Biosimilars Initiative have been approved by Health Canada and are already in widespread use.
4. Do I have to switch to a biosimilar?
If you receive coverage through BC PharmaCare and you currently take Remicade® for the treatment of Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis, you must switch to the biosimilar version before the end of the transition period (March 5, 2020) to avoid any disruption to your coverage.There may be medical reasons why some patients cannot switch to a biosimilar. Your gastroenterologist can help you determine if it is medically necessary to remain on a biologic (originator) drug. Your gastroenterologist can submit a Special Authority Request to ask BC PharmaCare to consider continued coverage of the reference biologic drug.
5. What are the benefits of biosimilars?
Biosimilars are developed and approved based in part on data generated during the research and development of the reference biologic drug. Extensive structural and functional studies demonstrate a high degree of similarity between the biosimilar and reference biologic drug, with clinical trials in humans confirming no clinically meaningful difference in efficacy. The difference in development processes allow for biosimilars to be launched at lower prices than the reference biologics representing the potential for major cost savings that can be reinvested into the healthcare system.Due to the cost savings provided by biosimilars, the launch of infliximab biosimilars in Canada allowed Ulcerative Colitis patients in BC, QC, NB, NS, and NL to have access to infliximab for the first time. The reference biologic (Remicade®) was not covered for Ulcerative Colitis in these provinces. A healthy and competitive drug market can support more manufacturers to produce new and affordable drugs. Biosimilars will enable patients to have access to many other life-saving treatments. Phase 1 of BC Biosimilar Initiatives allowed BC Pharmacare to cover 2 new innovative medicines for patients with diabetes and psoriatic arthritis (Taltz and Jardiance). Phase 1 also provided Accelerated Access to biologics for Rheumatology patients.
6. Why is coverage changing in BC?
As new treatments are developed, BC PharmaCare must review which drugs are covered and carefully consider how to best meet the needs of B.C. residents. Since the introduction of biologic drugs in the 1980s, these treatments have become the biggest drug expense in Canada. As patents on biologic drugs begin to expire, other manufacturers can start producing highly similar versions of the medication with no differences, at a much lower cost. These versions are called biosimilars. Remicade is B.C.’s second largest biologic expense. By switching to a biosimilar version, you are helping save millions of dollars every year. This is an opportunity to maximize resources, expand coverage for new treatments, and improve patient access to more medications.
7. How do I maintain my Infliximab® coverage?
To maintain your coverage:
8. Are there patient support programs?
Yes. Biosimilar manufacturers are providing patient support programs (PSP) and services, and access to infusion centres similar to that of the reference biologic drug . Your prescriber can initiate the enrolment process into a PSP for you, if applicable.
Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of Canada. 2012. The impact of inflammatory bowel disease in Canada - 2012 Final report and recommendations.http://crohnsandcolitis.ca/Crohns_and_Colitis/documents/reports/ccfc-ibd-impact-report-2012.pdf?ext=.pdf [accessed 3 September 2018]
Fedorak RN et al. Canadian Digestive Health Foundation Public Impact Series 4: Inflammatory bowel disease in Canada. Incidence, prevalence, and direct and indirect economic impact. Can J Gastroenterol. 2010 Nov;24(11):651-5.
Ng SC et al. Worldwide incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in the 21st century: A systematic review of population-based studies. Lancet. 2018 Dec 23;390(10114):2769-78.
Many of the symptoms of Crohn's Disease are similar. Symptoms outside the gut may include aching, sore joints, skin and mouth sores and red, inflamed eyes.
The most common symptoms of Crohn's disease are abdominal pain (often in the right, lower area of the abdomen) and diarrhea. There may also be rectal bleeding, weight loss and fever. Children may suffer poor growth.
Too many people skip potentially life-saving procedures because of misunderstandings and misconceptions about the bowel prep. However, most people who have had colonoscopies, will tell you it isn't nearly as bad as you think and that the benefits far outweigh the risks.
Although several drugs are useful in controlling these conditions, as yet a cure has not been found. Since the disease is not curable, long-term treatment is often required.
These include anti-inflammatory drugs (sulfasalazine/5-ASA), corticosteroids (prednisone and budesonide),immunosuppressives (methotrexate and azathioprine) and immunomodulatory agents (infliximab). Some of these may be given by different methods including oral, rectal and intravenously. Antibiotics may be useful in certain circumstances for Crohn's disease.
Click through our online e-learning tool below to explore the different medications and treatment options for IBD. Remember, no treatment is NOT an option!
Specific medications are used to treat diarrhea and abdominal cramps. Anti-diarrheal drugs slow the muscles of the intestine which in turn slow the passage of stool through the body and help with diarrhea. While abdominal pain often occurs with IBD, it is important to note that the pain is a consequence of the disease and, if treated appropriately, the pain should subside. People with IBD should be careful to avoid taking an excess of pain killers and anti-diarrheal drugs since this may lead to complications.
Diet alone is not effective in treating Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. However, it is important that patients with IBD have a well-balanced diet. Calcium is important to protect bones. Fibre may not be tolerated during flare ups. Certain vitamins (for example, B12) may be required. Selected patients may sometimes be helped by a registered dietitian.
People with both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis may need surgery at some point in their lives. Surgery is less common in ulcerative colitis than in Crohn's disease and is often performed when ulcerative colitis is no longer responding to medical treatment. Unlike Crohn's disease, surgery will cure ulcerative colitis by removing all diseased bowel. With the colon being completely removed the patient may require an ileostomy (bag outside the body to collect waste) or a second operation to form a new rectum (called a pouch procedure). Despite all of the advances in medical research over the last several decades, we still do not know the cause of IBD and much further research is required.
Tests are needed to determine whether the patient has ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease and to rule out other causes. To diagnose these disorders the doctor will take a complete history and perform a physical examination. In addition, blood tests are used to find out if you are anemic (low blood count) as a result of blood loss, or if there is an increased number of white blood cells in your body, suggesting an inflammatory process
Stool samples can tell your doctor if there is blood loss or if an infection by a parasite or bacteria is causing some of your symptoms.
The doctor may also look inside your rectum and large bowel through a long, flexible video camera called an endoscope. During this safe procedure, samples of the lining of the intestine (biopsies) may be taken to be looked at under the microscope.
On some occasions an X-ray exam may be required. This is done by putting barium (a white chalky solution) into the upper intestine (swallowing barium) or by putting the barium into the bowel by inserting a tube into the anus
Crohn's is a chronic (long-term) condition with symptoms that can disappear and then flare up again throughout your life. Living with the unpredictable nature of Crohn's can pose physical and emotional challenges that may seem overwhelming at times. However, there are several things that you can do to contribute to your health and well-being.
Be informed, proactive, and involved in your care. By establishing a solid partnership with your health care team, developing coping skills, and maintaining a positive outlook, it is possible to stay healthy and happy, despite living with ulcerative colitis.
Although diet and stress do not cause ulcerative colitis, there may be times when changes in your lifestyle may help control your symptoms and lengthen the time between flare-ups. The following changes may help to ease your symptoms:
Ask your doctor or pharmacist if one of these formulations may be right for you. It is important to take the probiotic in the dose and duration recommended by the manufacturer to achieve the best results.
People with Crohn's Disease are at an increased risk of developing colon cancer. Having regular endoscopies will help identify polyps that could potentially develop into cancer.
Diet alone is not effective in treating Crohn's disease. However, it is important that patients with Crohn's Disease have a well-balanced diet. Calcium is important to protect bones. Fibre may not be tolerated during flare ups. Certain vitamins (for example, B12) may be required. Selected patients may sometimes be helped by a registered dietitian.
Although both illnesses can be seriously debilitating, there are several primary differences between Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). IBD is an autoimmune disorder that causes swelling and ulcerations (sores) in the bowel. IBS involves problems with motility (how the bowel moves contents through our intestines) and sensitivity (how the brain interprets sensations in the bowel). Symptoms of IBS may wax and wane and possibly disappear altogether whereas IBD is a chronic condition.
This e-learning tool was made possible due to an unrestricted educational grant from Pfizer Canada
Click on the buttons on the body to the left or click from the list below where you are experiencing discomfort.